is the language of Science. It is indispensable for any training in
by R Nave
Algebra by the Computational Science Education Project
308F Home Page by Chris Hillman
Theory: The logic of science by E. T. Jaynes
Theory is a fundamental tool to be able to apply Thermodynamics and
Biophysics to all phenomena of the human behavior and, especially, to
those related to the subjective experience (perception, emotion,
knowledge, communication, etc). The Information Theory was conceived by
Claude Shannon in 1948.
Mathematical Theory of Communication by Claude E. Shannon.
Theory and Coding 314. Lecture Notes by R. Togneri.
Theory Primer by Thomas D. Schneider.
Information is NOT uncertainty!
Confused: How Could Information Equal Entropy?
Other interesting links
Elements, Table of Contents by
understanding of the processes of life comes from the knowledge of the
fundamental laws of matter, and of how life is determined by these laws.
Laws of Physics, and especially Thermodynamics laws, are essential to
understand the nature of life and, consequently, the behavior of human
by C.R. Nave
systems: an Introduction. Sets of learning support materials by topic
by Iain White, Principal Lecturer in Biogeography & Ecology,
Department of Geography, UNIVERSITY of PORTSMOUTH, UK.
161: The Solar System
162: Stars, Galaxies, and Cosmology
Mechanics provides us the basic concepts to understand Thermodynamics. The
most important concepts are those about energy and work.
Mechanics - Table of Contents by Maha Ashour-Abdalla.
laws by Jorge Pullin
121. Mechanics for Science Majors by Frank Wolfs
by Inquiry. Class Notes by Frank Wolfs
Physics for Students of Biology and Chemistry by Kenneth R.
is the general theory of the macroscopic processes and it is the base in
which our current understanding of life phenomena is sustained.
Especially, it is indispensable to understand the concept of entropy and
the second law, in its diverse manifestations. It is also fundamental to
understand the relationship between energy, work and entropy. Modern
Thermodynamics is based on Boltzmann's works.
is Conserved: The First Law of Thermodynamics by Charles J.
The Page of
Entropy by Dave Slaven, Saginaw Valley State University. An
informal and informative group of essays on entropy, mainly from a
microscopic (molecular) viewpoint.
Secondlaw.com by Frank
L. Lambert, Professor Emeritus, Occidental College. Another informal and
informative treatment; it takes the form of a dialogue, and uses a
Temperature by Beverly T. Lynds
the physical nature of the entropy and allowed a real beginning to the
understanding of the nature of life.
provides us the general understanding of the life phenomena starting from
the Thermodynamics of the processes very far from equilibrium, developed
by I. Prigogine. In short, life consists of staying very far from the
thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum disorder). To achieve that unique goal,
a living system should be able to interact with its environment in order
to dissipate the entropy produced inside the living system (dissipation
system). Life evolves developing infinite kinds of entropy dissipation. As
dissipation of entropy means to produce disorder in the environment, the
principle of the struggle for life, discovered by Darwin and which is the
base of modern Biology, turns out to be a particularly right and relevant
expression of the more general principle of entropy dissipation (I.
Prigogine). Physics and Biology unite intimately and irreversibly.
from Disorder: The Thermodynamics of Complexity in Biology by
E.D. Schneider and J.J. Kay, 1995
as a Manifestation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics by E.D.
Schneider and J.J. Kay, 1994
The Second Law of
or Designoid by Walter L. Bradley
of Chaos or Chaos in Science? by J.Bricmont. Physique
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
path begun by De Donder, Prigogine established the bases to understand the
behavior of the living beings starting from the laws of nature.
Autobiography of Ilya Prigogine
Rediscovery of Time. A discourse given by Dr. Ilya Prigogine
Ilya Prigogine Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex
What is Chaos? An Online Introduction for Everyone
Review in Biology Hypertextbook. Massachusetts Institute of
Molecules in Biology Hypertextbook. Massachusetts Institute of
Biochemistry in Biology Hypertextbook. Massachusetts Institute of
Photosynthesis in Biology Hypertextbook. Massachusetts Institute of
Biology is the
science of life and, therefore, it is the place from which the human
phenomena are understood in all their manifestations. Biology constitutes
the base-line field for all Human Sciences, Psychology among them. Once
the basic foundation of life in terms of the laws of Physics is
understood, Biology provides us the theoretical and methodological tools
to face up the infinite biodiversity of life and human phenomena.
Biology. Biology 1010 by Dr. Steven J. Wolf. California State
On-Line Biology Book by
Michael J. Farabee, Ph.D.
Concepts of Biology. Lecture notes by Philip Farabaugh, Phillip
Sokolove and Phyllis Robinson. University of Maryland Baltimore County.
is easier than to admit in words the truth of the universal struggle for
life, or more difficult at least I have found it so than constantly to
bear this conclusion in mind. Yet unless it be thoroughly engrained in the
mind, I am convinced that the whole economy of nature, with every fact on
distribution, rarity, abundance, extinction, and variation, will be dimly
seen or quite misunderstood."
biological theory is based on the Darwinian principle of the struggle for
life. This constitutes the base to understand the dynamics of behavior and
the evolution of life. Thanks to Prigogine, we know today that this
principle is totally compatible with the fundamental laws of nature.
Unfortunately, the mistake of believing that human beings are free from
the application of this law it is very extended and commonly shared. Even
more, the mistake of willing to justify by means of this principle any
kind of human decision (political, social, economical, medical, etc.)
prevents us from the scientific understanding of the human being from the
biological perspective. The aim of Science is to help us to understand our
decisions but not to justify them. Biology teaches us to be modest, to
understand that our existence goes parallel to the life of the other
living beings, and that anything we may do, think or believe will not
change the course of nature. The laws of nature determine us although we
are obstinate denying, ignoring and impeding it.
Darwin-Wallace 1858 Evolution Paper Prepared by James L. Reveal,
F.L.S., Paul J. Bottino and Charles F. Delwiche. Department of Cell
Biology and Molecular Genetics. University of Maryland, College Park,
of Species Ch. Darwin, 1859.
the Beagle Ch. Darwin, 1845.
Descent of Man Ch. Darwin, 1871.
Darwin-L Web Server
on Darwin by Charles F. Urbanowicz.
in 1976 for the first time the way of extending the Darwinian theory to
cultural phenomena. It is the most important theoretical advance in
Biology in the 20th century and it is one of the fundamental elements for
the application of Biology to the study of human phenomena. In short,
every culture is formed by information units (ideas, values, knowledge,
stereotypes, etc.) stored in the neural connections of the brains. These
units (memes) are able to reproduce themselves with variation into other
brains (through oral communication, books, television, internet, etc.).
And memes must struggle against each other to be able to reproduce
successfully and, consequently, to evolve and to endure. Cultural
evolution is the result of meme reproduction and its struggle for life.
evolutionary future of man. A biological view of progress by
"Information Challenge" by Richard Dawkins
Sciences - Introduction (c)1990 -IMR by Elan Moritz. The
Institute For Memetic Research
Events and Dynamics of Meme Replication by Aaron Lynch
Dawkins: biography and background
Plant Hybridization G. Mendel, (1865)
Genetics Developed by the Experimental Study Group at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Dogma Developed by the Experimental Study Group at Massachusetts
Institute of Technology
Biology Developed by the Experimental Study Group at
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
It is not
possible to understand the human nature without knowing its origin and
evolution. Knowing the facts of the evolution of life helps us to
understand the place of human beings in nature.
Theory and History at UCMP. Acerca de autores desde Aristóteles
to Evolutionary Biology by Chris Colby
of life at UCMP
Tree of Life by David R. Maddison. Coordinator and Editor.
University of Arizona.
and Nature Selection Lecture Notes at the University of Michigan
Living Things Have A Common Ancestor at UCMP
Diversity Web at the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology
about Evolution and the Nature of Science. National Academy
approaches the study of the interactions between the individuals and
populations that share the same ecosystem and it constitutes, therefore,
the theoretical base for the study of the human social relationships. All
the human relationships and, in particular, loving relationships, can be
described by concepts such as mutualism, competition, parasitism,
depredation, etc. Social relationships are the main battlefield where
human beings struggle for their life. Success or failure, health or
illness, wealth or poverty, wisdom or ignorance, etc. is the extreme
result of the daily social struggle that the human beings are forced to
engage to survive. Ecology provides us with the basic concepts to
understand our social and loving relationships.
Population Ecology by Alexei Sharov
together with the evolution facts, provides us with the basic knowledge to
understand the biological nature of the human phenomena, mainly those
related to the subjective experience: emotions, loving, thought, language,
beliefs, art, science, etc. Today, thanks to the research findings about
the nervous system and the evolution of life, it doesn't exist any doubt
among scientists about the biological nature of all human phenomena and,
in particular, cultural facts. Given that accepting that the information
stored in the molecular structure of DNA is biological is not a problem
any more, so it shouldn't exist any obstacle to accept that the
information stored in the neuronal structure of the Central Nervous System
(CNS) is equally biological.
Brain & Mind
Magazine - General Index
Seeing, Hearing and
Smelling the World
Drugs, Brains and
Behavior by C. Robin Timmons & Leonard W. Hamilton
Psychology by Joyce L. Norman
Kenneth H. Norwich
discovered that the neuronal sensitive response is proportional to the
uncertainty (or entropy) of the stimulus instead of its intensity. This
result opens up, in our opinion, the way to the understanding of the brain
operation as a dissipative system and it constitutes a fundamental support
for the identity between thermodynamic entropy and information
The psychophysics of taste from the entropy of the stimulus, by Kenneth
H. Norwich, 1984.
Sensation, and Perception by Kenneth H. Norwich (1993)
H. Norwich Theoretical Studies on Sensory Function
studies the behavior patterns genetically and/or culturally determined.
Other interesting links
Human Sciences as a whole, can be located completely inside the wide field
of Biology and they fully assume the theoretical foundations of the
biological thought. Nowadays, any human phenomenon (culture, thought,
emotion, literature, science, economy, art, religion, etc.) can be
understood from a biological point of view. Unfortunately, there is still
a high degree of ignorance and rejection of natural science among human
scientists. This prevents them from understanding the arbitrariness of
their speculative positions. On the other hand, it also exists a certain
fear among natural scientists to approach human phenomena from a
natural science perspective. Both circumstances make that what is
scientifically possible, is still an incipient project.
is Culture? at Washington State University
is intimately attached to Medicine in its common desire of contributing to
human health. Medicine has been the first human science that has been
integrated inside Biology. Medicine also teaches us that it doesn't exist
any fundamental difference between human beings and the rest of the living
Entropy, and Cancer: An Environmental-Thermodynamic Approach to Oncology.
by Keith Duguay. Institute of Environmental Studies. University of
out the fundamental discovery of the modern Medicine: the illnesses don't
originate for spontaneous generation but for the attack of microscopic
organisms (bacterias and virus).
Theory and Its Applications to Medicine and Surgery by Louis
Of The Germ Theory To The Etiology Of Certain Common Diseases
by Louis Pasteur, 1880.
Pasteur (1822-1895) by Seung Yon Rhee
Louis (1822 - 1895)
biopsychosocial approach has been developed during the last decades as a
result of the growing conscience between the professionals of health, that
there are psychological and social factors that intervene whether at the
origin or during the development of an illness.
affective deficit be a cause of illness?
dependence diagnosis, clinical aspects, and biopsychosocial causes
Medicine as a Model for Enablement
has experienced a clear evolution toward Biology during the last decades.
Modern Anthropology finds in Biology the theoretical foundations needed to
explain and to understand the cultural biodiversity of the human species,
rejecting the speculations, far from real, of the old Anthropology.
to Physical Anthropology by Randy Skelton
The study of
paleontological facts and theories of human evolution is a must for all
Hominids FAQ by Jim Foley
Long Foreground: Human Prehistory at Washington State University
Evolution: Humb1060 Course notes by Terry McAndrew and Steve
Ancestors Unearthed: Field Notes at Carnegie Museum of
An Exhibition by D. I. Loizos
Sourcebooks Project edited by Paul Halsall
There are two
fundamental landmarks within the human cultural evolution that constitute
the final reference for all the other cultural phenomena. The oldest, and
therefore the most important for the present time is the Agricultural
Revolution. Most of our current culture is the result of 10.000 years of
Agricultural Revolution at WSU
Updated View of the Çatal Hüyük Controversy by Marla Mallett
Settle Down? The Mystery of Communities by Michael Balter
Slow Birth of Agriculture by Heather Pringle
Industrial Revolution (1750-?)
Today, we are
living a biological revolution of an incalculable magnitude whose outcome
nobody can reach nor foresee. In the 18th century, the Industrial
Revolution began a process of accelerated change in the technological
culture of the human species that it hasn't yet arrived to an end. This
means that the economic and technological reality to which the culture of
human beings must be adapted to survive changes rapidly from one
generation to the next. Meanwhile, most of our social and family culture
is still agricultural. This disruption has produced what has been called 'the values crisis' of the modern society. Especially, the family structure
seems to be condemned to the extinction while it still doesn't exist an
alternative social structure.
The Industrial Revolution
edited by Paul Halsall.
Bioeconomics, considers that the economic processes and behaviors are
exclusively biological facts and, therefore, that they can be understood
and explained, using Biology. Rothschild has been the first one to explain
economic behavior from an exclusively biological point of view. That
approach appears in his book "Bionomics. Economy as Ecosystem",
The Bionomics Institute
by M. Rothschild
Economía Como Ecosistema by M. Rothschild (traducción al
español de "Bionomics. Economy as Ecosystem")
Natural language and natural selection by Steven Pinker and Paul Bloom.
We use the term
'biopsychology' to express the certainty that Psychology is a biological
science. We consider Biopsychology (or Psychology) as the study of the
human emotional, affective and cognitive processes from a biological
and Evolution on the Web
Sociobiological Society (ESS)
Psychology tries to investigate the evolution and the selection of
cognitive patterns along the human evolution.
Psychology For The Common Person
What is Evolutionary
of Neurology allows us to begin to understand some general aspects of
our subjective experience and our behavior starting from what we already
know about the operation of the brain.